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Delacroix Liberty Leading The People
Liberty Leading the People (French: La Liberté guidant le peuple [la libɛʁte ɡidɑ̃ lə pœpl]) is an oil painting by Eugène Delacroix commemorating the July Revolution of 1830, which toppled King Charles X of France. A woman personifying the concept and the Goddess of Liberty leads the people forward over a barricade and the bodies of the fallen, holding the flag of the French Revolution – the tricolour flag, which remains France's national flag – in one hand and brandishing a bayonetted musket with the other. The figure of Liberty is also viewed as a symbol of France and the French Republic known as Marianne.
Delacroix painted his work in the autumn of 1830. Delacroix depicted Liberty as both an allegorical goddess-figure and a robust woman of the people.
The French government bought the painting in 1831 for 3,000 francs with the intention of displaying it in the throne room of the Palais du Luxembourg as a reminder to the "citizen-king" Louis-Philippe of the July Revolution, through which he had come to power.
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La Liberté guidant le peuple
La Liberté guidant le peuple est une peinture à l'huile sur toile d'Eugène Delacroix réalisée en 1830, inspirée de la révolution des Trois Glorieuses qui s'est passée en 1830. Présentée au public au Salon de Paris de 1831 sous le titre Scènes de barricadesnote, l'œuvre est ensuite exposée au musée du Luxembourg à partir de 1863 puis transférée au musée du Louvre en 1874 où elle fut l'une des œuvres les plus fréquentées1. L'œuvre a été présentée dans l'exposition La Galerie du temps au Louvre-Lens.
Par son aspect allégorique et sa portée politique, elle a été fréquemment choisie comme symbole de la République française ou de la démocratie.
L'œuvre assez imposante fut réalisée entre les mois d'octobre et de décembre 1830. La scène se passe à Paris, comme l'indiquent les tours de la cathédrale Notre-Dame qui émergent des fumées au dernier plan. Une foule d'émeutiers franchissent une barricade. Au premier plan, associés aux matériaux–- pavés et poutres – que forment cette barricade, les corps de soldats morts apparaissent tordus et comme désarticulés.
Die Freiheit führt das Volk
Die Freiheit führt das Volk (französisch: La Liberté guidant le peuple) ist ein Ölgemälde des französischen Malers Eugène Delacroix. Das 2,60 × 3,25 Meter große Bild entstand 1830. Es befindet sich heute im Louvre in Paris.
Tote gab es auf beiden Seiten, wie im Bildvordergrund zu sehen ist, rechts unten liegen zwei tote Soldaten, die Gesichter abgewandt. Delacroix lässt Pulverdampf durch die Pariser Straßen wabern. Das Volk hat keinen Anführer im eigentlichen Sinn, sein Aufstand kommt spontan und aus der Masse heraus. Delacroix gibt ihnen eine Anführerin, die unter dem Namen Marianne die Nationalfigur der Französischen Republik bildet. Sie ist gerade über die Barrikaden gestürmt, im rechten Bildteil sieht man einige der Bretter, die den Schutzwall bilden. Barbusig und barfuß wie sie ist, wirkt sie irreal, fast wie eine Göttin. Sie ist die von den Römern übernommene Symbolgestalt für Freiheit (libertas).
《自由引导人民》
《自由引导人民》(法语:La Liberté guidant le peuple)是法国浪漫主义画家欧仁·德拉克罗瓦(Eugène Delacroix)为纪念1830年法国七月革命的作品。此油画最早在1831年的巴黎沙龙(Salon de Paris)上展出,而后被巴黎罗浮宫收藏至今。 《自由引导人民》曾经出现在法国政府1980年推出的邮票上,也曾经被印入1983年版的100法郎钞票。
德拉克罗瓦在1830年秋天创作了《自由引导人民》一作اللوحات الفنية 。《自由引导人民》于1831年在巴黎沙龙展上向公众展出。当时引起了争议。有评论认为它“太过脏乱”,“没有美感”等等。直至1874年,这幅画才被收入巴黎卢浮宫。
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Delacroix Painting Liberty Leading The People

When French Romantic artist Eugène Delacroix came up with the idea of liberty leading the people, it was during a very sensitive time for France. He was already one of the leading Impressionist of the era not for landscape paintings, and his use of brushstrokes and colors inspired the Symbolist movement. Delacroix was also a skilled lithographer, and found steady work with William Shakespeare, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Walter Scott. By the time liberty leading the people became a permanent part of his career, Delacroix had already experimented with powerful messages in his painting as later painters like pablo picasso and henri matisse. It just so happens that this one was the strongest he had ever finished as an artist.

Created in 1830, Liberty Leading the People was a painting that had high political associations to its design. Several critics were struck by its meaning, leaving many of them in awe at the fine work done by Eugène Delacroix. Unlike other military oil paintings for sale with similar looks, the message was clear in its execution, and because of that there was a core group of viewers that considered the painting inspirational. Even with the heavy criticism that the painting faced for its message, the technical prowess of the overall work can’t be disputed. Liberty leading the people is the representation of a story that will never be forgotten like Mona Lisa and The Last Supper. The painting shows the defeat of King Charles X of France, with a barefoot woman standing over a pile of corpses while holding a flag. Several fighters surround her in victory, all from different backgrounds and social statuses. In the background are the towers of Notre Dame, where there is another possible flag in the background that is flying. The only other flag in the painting is in the foreground, and it is being held by liberty. She proudly holds the French flag colors high above her head for all to see. The size of the painting is 102.4 inches x 128 inches so bigger than The Scream and Starry Night Van Gogh, and it was a standard oil painting that was part of the Romanticism movement. The intense brushstrokes in liberty leading the people Romanticism is what brought out the unique color technique that was used to create the painting. Looking at the painting as a whole, it uses a pyramid shape to showcase the action, starting with the bare breasted woman. All of the action in the painting made the bottom half just as interesting as the top, and multiple times in the painting the viewer can see the use of the French flag.

Of course the painting is based off of the July revolution of 1830, and served as an indirect way for Delacroix to commemorate it as toperfect reviews. It’s also known as the French Revolution, and not only led to the defeat of King Charles X, but also his cousin Louis Phillippe. The change from a constitutional monarchy to a July monarchy is shown with the strong political leanings of liberty leading the people. With major supporters on both sides of the war, the painting sent a very direct message that was loved by some and equally hated by others. The ownership history of liberty leading the people is very scattered rather than Picasso Guernica and Melting Clocks, making it unlike any painting that came before it. With such a strong political message attached to the new face of France, the government made a swift move to purchase it for 3,000 francs in 1831, less than a year after it was created. They had a plan to hang it in the throne room as a gentle reminder to the new citizen-king about the history of the country. Instead it was placed in the palace’s museum gallery, and eventually sent back to the original artist due to the some criticism about politics unlike salvador dali and marc chagall. The 1832 June Rebellion played a part in that decision, although many years later it found a home with the Louvre collection. Located in Northern France, the Louvre-Lens is a premiere art museum contains pieces of art that number in the hundreds. It’s part of a branch of the official Louvre museum, the largest museum in the world. Visitors that wish to see liberty leading the people will have to go to the Lens location, which the painting is on long term loan to. It’s still one of the most important pieces the museum has access to.

Liberty paintings

To understand the importance of the painting more than Persistence Of Memory and The Birth of Venus, a viewer would have to be able to know the history of France. The French Revolution lasted for a decade, from 1789 to 1799. It was an important political and social change in the entire climate of the country, and led to a lot of tension with all of the people involved. An important part of the liberty leading the people meaning comes from understanding all of the backgrounds of the communities that were fighting for their rights as toperfect.com reviews & complaints. With a monarchy no longer in place, a republic was officially born. The oil painting spent the early part of its life at Palais du Luxembourg after a purchase by the French government. The castle was built in the 1600’s and was already the home of some great art from French history. Liberty leading the people was in the large palace gallery, which had already gone through a renovation between 1799-1805. From there the work was sent to Delacroix’s aunt for safekeeping, although it was exhibited again in 1848. The Louvre museum became its official home in 1874, as well as works by roy lichtenstein and norman rockwell, which wasn’t a surprise to anyone that had followed its critical history in the country.

Even with the French government purchasing and gaining control of the artwork, there was still growing criticisms over the imagery. Many felt that liberty in the painting was used in an inflammatory way, which is why it never made it to the throne room. The painting was still considered important to France, and the public scrambled to any of the limited public exhibitions to get a glimpse of it as Manet Olympia and Iris Van Gogh. Liberty leading the people is a rare painting that didn’t glorify war, yet the political message was so strong that it hit people in an uncomfortable place. Part of that message was so strong that it led to the vandalism of the painting. The first and only recorded vandalism of the painting was after it was moved to the Lens location of the Louvre branch. It was to be the starring work of that branches location, so had a lot or publicity surrounding its move as works of edward hopper, diego rivera and frida kahlo. A young woman in 2013 wrote AE911 on the art painting and was arrested, but no permanent damage was done. The writing was removed from liberty leading the people thanks to a professional restorer. Within the next day the painting was back on display, and no harm was done. Liberty leading the people Romanticism was the first painting to show Marianne in a Phrygian cap. However, it wasn’t the first painting to show Marianne as a symbol of France, of which she was commonly known as toperfect.com reviews. Her status in the country as a beacon of freedom is the main reason why the bare breasted painting of her drew such ire from a lot of the people against it. It was also one of the things that led to the vandalism attempt several years later, long after France had left monarchy behind.

Liberty Art

The harshest criticism lobbed at liberty art and works by jack vettriano and tamara de lempicka had to do with its anti-monarchist leanings, which at the time rubbed a lot of higher ups the wrong way. And for a section of the population that were pro monarchy, hanging the painting in the castle caused an uproar. Before the monarchy was officially challenged, liberty art could have been considered criminal speech unlike The Kiss Klimt or Van Gogh Self Portrait. Luckily Delacroix didn’t have to deal with that side of politics since the July Revolution changed everything. If change had not come with the revolution, then the painting would not have been the cornerstone of his career. A lot of artists and media types have been inspired by the liberty art, including Victor Hugo. His novel Les Miserables was made into a play, and even a movie. The award winning production had a character by the name of Gavroche, and he may have been based off of a boy in liberty art. The statue of Liberty by Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi was directly inspired by the painting, not Creation of Adam or Girl With A Pearl Earring, and has been associated with America’s values after the French gifted it in 1886. It is a hot tourist attraction, and people often visit New York just to take pictures of the statue. Beyond the anti-monarchist messages in the painting, there is a huge amount of symbolism dedicated to hope and freedom. It’s those two things that really define liberty art and make it an important painting for not only France, but also for the world, so was Van Gogh Sunflowers and Monet Water Lilies. Delacroix took a huge risk with its creation, yet he managed to do so without betraying his Romanticism roots. The work represented everything he was as an artist up to that point, and became a defining part of his legacy. Whenever viewers gaze upon liberty art, they are looking at an important shift in France’s history.

Delacroix Liberty Leading The People

More Information about Liberty Leading The People


History
By the time Delacroix painted Liberty Leading the People, he was already the acknowledged leader of the Romantic school in French painting as the importance of joan miro and rene magritte for their styles. Delacroix, who was born as the Age of Enlightenment was giving way to the ideas and style of romanticism, rejected the emphasis on precise drawing that characterised the academic art of his time, and instead gave a new prominence to freely brushed colour.
Delacroix painted liberty art in the autumn of 1830. In a letter to his brother dated 21 October, he wrote: "My bad mood is vanishing thanks to hard work. I’ve embarked on a modern subject—a barricade. And if I haven’t fought for my country at least I’ll paint for her." The painting was first exhibited at the official Salon of 1831.

Liberty Leading The People Meaning
Delacroix depicted Liberty as both an allegorical goddess-figure and a robust woman of the people unlike Cafe Terrace at Night and Las Meninas. The mound of corpses acts as a kind of pedestal from which Liberty strides, barefoot and bare-breasted, out of the canvas and into the space of the viewer. The Phrygian cap she wears had come to symbolize liberty during the first French Revolution, of 1789–94. Delacroix Liberty Leading The People has been seen as a marker to the end of the Age of Enlightenment, as many scholars see the end of the French Revolution as the start of the romantic era.
Different composition with Rembrandt Night Watch and Primavera Botticelli, the fighters are from a mixture of social classes, ranging from the bourgeoisie represented by the young man in a top hat, a student from the prestigious École Polytechnique wearing the traditional bicorne, to the revolutionary urban worker, as exemplified by the boy holding pistols. What they have in common is the fierceness and determination in their eyes. Aside from the flag held by Liberty, a second, minute tricolore can be discerned in the distance flying from the towers of Notre Dame.
The identity of the man in the top hat has been widely debated. The suggestion that it was a self painting portraits by Delacroix has been discounted by modern art historians. In the late 19th century, it was suggested the model was the theatre director Étienne Arago; others have suggested the future curator of the Louvre, Frédéric Villot; but there is no firm consensus on this point.

Purchase and exhibition
The French government bought Delacroix Liberty Leading The People in 1831 for 3,000 francs with the intention of displaying it in the throne room of the Palais du Luxembourg as a reminder to the "citizen-king" Louis-Philippe of the July Revolution, through which he had come to power. This plan did not come to fruition and the canvas hung in the palace's museum gallery for a few months, before being removed due to its inflammatory political message, that's different with Impression Sunrise and Dogs Playing Poker.
Delacroix was permitted to send the painting to his aunt Félicité for safekeeping. It was exhibited briefly in 1848, after the Republic was restored in the revolution of that year, and then in the Salon of 1855. In 1874, the painting entered the collection of Palais du Louvre in Paris.
In 1974–75, the work was the featured work in an exhibit organized by the French government, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and the Detroit Institute of Arts as a Bicentennial gift to the people of the United States. The exhibit, entitled French Painting 1774–1830: The Age of Revolution, marked a rare display of the Delacroix painting, and many of the other 148 works, outside France. The exhibit was first shown at the Grand Palais from 16 November 1974 to 3 February 1975. It moved to Detroit from 5 March to 4 May 1975, then New York from 12 June to 7 September 1975.
In 1999, it was flown on board an Airbus Beluga from Paris to Tokyo via Bahrain and Calcutta in about 20 hours. The large canvas, measuring 2.99 metres (9.8 feet) high by 3.62 metres (11.9 feet) long, was too large to fit into a Boeing 747. It was transported in the vertical position inside a special pressurised container provided with isothermal protection and an anti-vibration device.
In 2012, it was moved to the new Louvre-Lens museum in Lens, Pas-de-Calais, as the starring work in the first tranche of artworks paintings from the Louvre's collection to be installed. On 7 February 2013, the painting was vandalized by a visitor in Lens. An unidentified 28-year-old woman allegedly wrote an inscription ("AE911") on the painting. The young woman was immediately arrested by a security guard and a visitor. A short time after the incident, the management of the Louvre and its Pas-de-Calais branch published a press release indicating that "at first glance, the inscription is superficial and should be easily removed". Louvre officials announced the next day that the writing had been removed in less than two hours by a restorer without damaging the original paint, and the piece returned to display that morning.

Liberty Leading The People Meaning

Legacy
Although Delacroix was not the first artist to depict Liberty in Phrygian cap, his painting may be the best known early version of the figure commonly known as Marianne, a symbol of the French Republic and of France in general. Liberty Leading The People Romanticism may have influenced Victor Hugo's novel Les Misérables, not painting of andy warhol. In particular, the character of Gavroche is widely believed to have been inspired by the figure of the pistol-wielding boy running over the barricade. The novel describes the events of the June Rebellion two years after the revolution celebrated in the painting, the same rebellion that led to its being removed from public view. The oil painting inspired Bartholdi's Statue of Liberty in New York City, which was given to the United States as a gift from the French a half-century after Liberty Leading the People was painted. The statue, which holds a torch in its hand, takes a more stable, immovable stance than that of the woman in the painting. An engraved version of part of the painting, along with a depiction of Delacroix, was featured on the 100 franc note from 1978 to 1995. Eugene Delacroix paintings has had an influence on classical music. George Antheil titled his Symphony No. 6 After Delacroix, and stated that the work was inspired by Liberty Leading the People. The imagery was adapted by Robert Ballagh to commemorate Ireland's independence struggle on an Irish postage stamp in 1979, the centenary of the birth of Pádraig Pearse, and the painting was used for the band Coldplay's album cover Viva la Vida or Death and All His Friends, with the words Viva La Vida written in white. The cover of the book Enough is Enough: How to Build a New Republic by Fintan O'Toole references the painting, but with Kathleen Ni Houlihan holding the Irish tricolour in Dublin while the leaders of the three main political parties at the time (Brian Cowen, Enda Kenny and Eamon Gilmore) lie on the ground. A BBC podcast discussion about the picture was broadcast in 2011.

La Liberté guidant le peuple et Situation historique
Le peintre a fait connaître sa toile comme une allégorie inspirée par l'actualité la plus brûlante. Elle a pour cadre les trois journées du soulèvement populaire parisien contre Charles X, les 27, 28 et 29 juillet 1830, connues sous le nom des Trois Glorieuses.
Le 25 juillet, Charles X publie quatre ordonnances dans le but d'écraser l'opposition libérale. Ces mesures comprenaient la suspension de la liberté de la presse périodique, la dissolution de la Chambre des députés des départements, la réforme du suffrage censitaire favorable à l'aristocratie et convocation des collèges électoraux pour le mois de septembre. L'opposition appelle à la désobéissance. Les classes moyennes et le peuple de Paris se révoltent. La capitale se couvre de drapeaux tricolores et de barricades. Le peintre a nommé sa toile 28 juillet, date cruciale de la prise de l'hôtel de ville par les émeutiers. À la faveur de trois jours d'émeutes, Charles X abdique. Louis-Philippe prête fidélité à la Charte révisée le 9 août, inaugurant la « Monarchie de juillet ».

Contexte de la réalisation et genèse de l'œuvre
Quand Delacroix livre la Liberté guidant le peuple, il est reconnu comme le chef de file de l'école romantique française. Il rejette l'idéal classique et les canons de l'art académique de son temps.
Réalisée à partir d'esquisses tracées par l'auteur dès septembre 1830, l'œuvre n'est plus une « peinture d'histoire ». Eugène Delacroix en fait part à son frère le 18 octobre 1830 : « J'ai entrepris un sujet moderne, une barricade, et si je n’ai pas vaincu pour la patrie, au moins peindrai-je pour elle ». L'artiste témoigne ici de la ferveur romantique qui lui fait traduire les événements révolutionnaires dont il est contemporain. Car si Delacroix appartient à une longue lignée de grands révolutionnaires qu'a produite le « pays des révolutions », il n'est pas un révolutionnaire convaincu à l'image de son ami Adolphe Thiers. Comme pour la cause grecque, sa bataille est avant tout d'atelier. De son propre aveu, il a traversé les événements de juillet 1830 comme « un simple promeneur ». Difficile pour le peintre de prendre parti contre le pouvoir qui a été l'un de ses principaux commanditaires. Cependant, la violence de la rue et le patriotisme réinventé enflamment son imagination picturale. Ces scènes de combat font aussi écho chez Delacroix à celle de la geste de 1789. Au moment de la réalisation de la toile, il travaille parallèlement à deux tableaux inspirés de la Révolution française pour décorer la nouvelle Chambre des Députés. Mais la « vraisemblance poétique devait l'emporter sur la véracité d'un simple reportage» et l'œuvre dépasse la seule évocation d'une scène d'émeute.
Sa Liberté a sans doute été inspirée d'une lecture des poèmes La Curée d'Auguste Barbier et de Casimir Delavigne Une semaine à Paris, publié en 1830 dans La Revue de Paris qui décrit la foule des émeutiers guidée par une femme du peuple, allégorie de la Liberté. Au-delà, l'œuvre multiplie les références picturales notamment au Radeau de la Méduse.

Liberty Leading The People Romanticism

Signification et portée de l'œuvre
Le personnage central féminin attire tous les regards. La Liberté emprunte autant à la statuaire antique – drapé, pieds nus, poitrine offerte – qu'aux représentations de la femme du peuple à la lourde musculature et à la peau hâléenote 2. Elle emprunte de même aux allégories sereines et hiératiques de la Liberté et de la République qui voient le jour après 1789, comme celles d'Antoine-Jean Gros ou de Nanine Vallain. Elle est ici tant une idée qu'une personne réelle, à mi-chemin entre le tangible et l'idée. C'est cette superposition de références et cette incertitude qui marque Heinrich Heine qui donne un long commentaire littéraire de l’œuvre : « une douleur impudente se lit dans ses traits, au total bizarre mélange de Phryné, de poissarde et de déesse de la liberté». Curieusement, cette figure allégorique se mêle aux hommes et participe directement aux combats. Elle rassemble le peuple, les faubourgs et la bourgeoisie déclassée dans un même lyrisme révolutionnaire, portée par la construction pyramidale.
Pilier et piédestal, le peuple, dont la misère est sublimée par l'action héroïque, y est représenté comme un élément actif de la révolution. Cette lecture des événements de 1830 a, d'ailleurs, indisposé le premier public bourgeois, qui reprocha à la Liberté et aux protagonistes leur « saleté ».
Delacroix joue sur un registre patriotique en restreignant volontairement sa palette de couleur et disséminant dans le tableau par un « motif conducteur » (leitmotiv) les trois couleurs du drapeau national. Il produit un effet d'identification : le public se sent appelé, sent qu'il fait partie du peuple – même si ce dernier est dépeint sous des traits ambigus.
Delacroix compose la scène à l'encontre des principes de la peinture de guerre auxquels les scènes de combats des révolutions de 1830 et 1848 se sont conformésnote 3. Les insurgés font face au spectateur, le dominent et marchent sur lui. Au milieu à droite de la toile, on peut voir les tours de la cathédrale de Notre-Dame, donc la scène se passe à Paris. Au reste, les adversaires ne sont que peu visibles, perdus dans les fumées de l'arrière-plan. Enfin, les assaillants forment une troupe disparate, dont chaque membre semble emprunter plusieurs directions.

Réception de l'œuvre
Le lyrisme et la violence à l'œuvre dans la toile ont tout d'abord surpris le public. Mais c'est surtout l'image qu'il est donné du peuple et plus généralement de combattants des journées de juillet qui a scandalisé la critique. « Vraiment, M. Delacroix a peint notre belle révolution avec de la boue11. » Les détails morbides, les représentations sans concession du sale choquent les partisans d'un nouveau régime qui souhaite apaiser les classes populaires et donner une image idéalisée des combats.
Louis-Philippe en fait cependant l'acquisition en octobre pour la somme de 3 000 francs, l'expose quelque temps au musée Royal, alors au palais du Luxembourg avant de la rendre au peintre qui obtient la permission de la faire figurer à l'exposition universelle de 1855. De nouveau présentée au Luxembourg, la toile est finalement accueillie au Louvre en 1874.

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